Lakota/Dakota Language and Culture Resources

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Painting by Lakota artist Lyle Antelope on display at Sitting Bull College Library

Below are resources that are available for research in Lakota/Dakota history, culture and language. Some resources may only be available at Sitting Bull College or with a password. Contact a librarian at 701-854-8008 or send an email to mark.holman@sittingbull.edu if you need assistance. Many of the items below are in the public domain and available for free download by clicking the links.

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From left Joe Primeau, Unknown Man, Sitting Bull, Nate Salesbury, Crow Eagle and Unknown Man. Photo by Gilbert & Bacon, Philadelphia, 1885

Bibliographies and Language Resource Websites  

Lakota Language Consortium

Lakota Language Forum

Lakota/Dakota Comprehensive Bibliography Updated 2011

Dakota Resources: Historical Sketch and Selected Bibliography of Early Linguistic Research in Dakota/Lakota Language 

One Hundred Years of Lakota Linguistics (1887-1987) 

A Supplementary Bibliography of Lakota Language and Linguistics (1987-1990)  

Lakota Orthographies Compared

Woihanble: news, features and sports in the Lakota language

Lakota/Dakota Electronic Books Online

Below is a listing of ebooks that are available online. Most of these titles are older works in the public domain and can be viewed for free and in many cases downloaded for free by clicking on the links. Many are early works translated into the Lakota/Dakota language, while others relate to Lakota/Dakota history. Although many of these titles may be anachronistic and representative of the age of colonization and  assimilation, they may present information useful in the present.  Titles are listed in alphabetical order by title. Items from Hathi Trust libraries are viewable and downloadable by the page, while Internet Archive and Google Books materials are viewable and downloadable if in the public domain. Hathi Trust items may also be accessible in Internet Archive and Google Books. I’ve chosen to use Hathi Trust for most of the links primarily because of the quality of their site and to support this library initiative. For more recent titles and those not in the public domain, check the library catalog on the main library page.

A Century of Dishonor By Helen Hunt Jackson

A Dakota Nyelv (A comparative grammar of Hungarian and Dakota

A Statement of Affairs At Red Cloud Agency by Charles Othneil Marsh 1875

A Study of Siouan Cults by James Owen Dorsey

Abraham Lincoln Toni Kin Qa Aesop (Life of Abraham Lincoln and Aesop’s Fables)  Tawoyake Kin by James Garvie 1893

Battling With the Sioux on the Yellowstone by George Custer 

Cante Teca (The Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan) by Stephen Riggs

Catholic Wocekiye Wowapi by Jerome Hunt (Fort Totten N.D.)

Crusading Along Sioux Trails: Catholic Indian Missions in South Dakota by Claudia Duratzcheck 1947

Civilization Among the Sioux Indians: Report of a Visit to Some Reservations of South Dakota and Nebraska by Herbert Welsh 1896

Dakota Dowapi Kin (Hymns in the Dakota Sioux Language) by Joseph Renville et. al. 

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Vine Deloria Jr. speaking at Standing Rock 1970’s (Sitting Bull College Archive)

Dakota Language by Stephen Riggs

Dakota Odowan: Dakota Hymns by John Poage Williamson

Dakota Odowan: Dakota Hymns by Stephen Riggs

Dakota Place Names: Geographical Names on 18th and 19th Century Maps 

Dakota Superstitions by Gideon Pond

Dakota Texts by Ella Deloria

Dakota Wowapi Wakan Kin: The New Testament in Dakota Language

Decorative Art of the Sioux Indians by Clark Wissler 1904

Extracts from the Genesis and the Psalms with the Third Chapter of Proverbs and Third Chapter of Daniel in the Dakota Language by Joseph Renville and Thomas Williamson

From the Deep Woods to Civilization by Charles Eastman 1916

Gramamatik Der Dakota-Sprache by H.C. Gabelentz 1852

Hanhanna Qais Thtayetu Cekiyapi by The Church of England 1889

He Tuwe He by Stephen Riggs (1877?)

History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians

History of Joseph in the Language of the Sioux Indians by Samuel and Gideon Pond 1839

Hymns in Dakota For Use in the Missionary Jurisdiction of Niobrara by Indian Commission of Protestant Episcopal Church 1874 

Htakiniwachinskanpi Okodakiciye (Society of Christian Endeavor Constitution and Bylaws Dakota-English (Santee Normal School) 1890 

Jesus Taapetu by Frederick Riggs (Santee Normal School)

Katolik Wocekiye by Martin Marty 1890

Lakota Dakota Electronic Texts Available Online

Lakota Letters and Sounds

Lakota Winter Squash, a Cultivar Derived from Native American Sources in Nebraska

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Photograph of Sitting Bull by D.F. Barry 1880’s (courtesy Library of Congress)

Lakota Wocekiye Na Olowan Wowapi (Sioux Indian Prayer and Hymn Book) by St Francis Mission               

Maka-Oyakapi: Guyot’s Elementary Geography in Dakota Language by Stephen Riggs

Mary and I: Forty Years with the Sioux by Stephen Riggs

Mni Nakata Pi; The Oahe Dam and the Standing Rock People 1900-1960 by Harriet Skye

Music of the American Indians: Sioux from the Archive of Folk Culture

Narrative of an Expedition through the Upper Mississippi To Itasca Lake by Henry Schoolcraft 1834

Official Relations Between the United States and The Sioux Indians by Lucy Elizabeth Textor 1896

Poems From Sioux and Chippewa Songs by Francis Densmore

Psalm Wowapi (Book of Psalms) by Stephen Riggs 1887

Riding Gear of the North American Indians by Clarck Wissler 1915

Two Volunteer Missionaries Among the Dakotas: The Story of Samuel and Gideon Pond

Myths and Legends of the Sioux by Marie McLaughlin

Samuel and Gideon Pond Dakota Language Translations

A comprehensive page by the Pond-Dakota Heritage Society with descriptions and links to the many full-text materials translated by the missionary Pond brothers

Siouan Sociology by James Owen Dorsey

Sioux Beadwork by Department of Interior 1933

Sketch of Lakhota, A Siouan Language from Handbook of North American Indians by David Rood and Alan Taylor 1996 

Some Protective Designs of the Dakota by Clark Wissler 1907

Songs of the Heoucka Society and a Teton Ghost Story by James Owen Dorsey

Standing Rock Sioux Reservation: a Case Study of Food Security 1990

Sunkawakan Wicanyuhapi by Mary Lord (Santee Normal School) 1894

Teton Dakota Ethnology and History by John Ewers 1937

Teton Sioux Music by Francis Densmore 

Teton Sioux Population History 1655-1881 by Kingsley Bray

The Dakotan Languages by A.W. Williamson 1882

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Solen, ND Basketball Team in 1940 (Wikimedia Commons via National Archive)

The history of the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, 1800-2000
A free downloadable e-book in multiple formats available from the Internet Archive

The Language of the Dakota or Sioux Indians by F.L.O. Roehrig 1871

The Last Battle of the Sioux Nation by Usher Burdick 1929

The People of Tipi Sapa Mitaoyate Kin by Sarah Emilia Olden 1918

The Sioux Nation and the United States by the National Indian Defense Association 1891

The Sun Dance and Other Ceremonies of the Oglala Division of the Teton Dakota by James Walker

The War with the Sioux: Norwegians Against Indians 1862-1863 by Karl Jacob Skarsteins

Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America by Jonathan Carver 1779

Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region by Melvin Gilmore

Wicastayatapi Tacanku (The Kings Highway) by Richard Newton 1879

Wiconi Tawoonspe by Alfred Riggs 1911

Wigwam Evenings: Sioux Folktales Retold by Charles Eastman

Wookiye Kagapi Kin (Three Indian Treaties and Laws) by James Garvie 1902

Woonspe Itakihna (Precept upon Precept) by John Renville and Stephen Riggs 1889

Woope Mowis owa kin Dakota iapi en Pejuta Wicasta kaga (The law written by Moses, in the Dakota Language by T.S. Williamson 1874 

Wounded Knee Massacre Congressional Hearings 1976

Woyazanska (Tuberculosis) by Theodore Riggs 1898

Wowapi Wakan Kin Token Eya He by Mary Lord (Santee Normal School) 1894

Haskell Institute (Indian Life Readers, Sioux Series) translated by Emil Afraid of Hawk

Brave Against the Enemy 181434_407246715985507_1097042538_n

Bringer of the Mystery Dog

The Hen of Wahpeton 

The Grass Mountain Mouse 

Singing Sioux Cowboy

Sioux Cowboy

The Slim Buttes Raccoon 

Dakota Language Newspapers

Iapi Oaye was first published in January 1871 and was the newspaper by the Dakota people in Santee, Nebraska, where they were exiled from Minnesota in 1862. During its earliest years, Iapi Oaye, which translates as “Word Carrier,” was written almost entirely in Dakota. It featured articles on local, regional, and world news and events, English grammar lessons, biographies, Christian scripture and doctrine, and facts and figures relating to Dakota communities. The full collection of the newspaper from 1871-1939 can be found online (text from Minnesota Reflections website)

Dakota Tawaxikitu Kin (The Dakota Friend) was a bilingual newspaper published for a few short years in the 1850’s by Gideon Pond and the Dakota Mission. The full run of the newspaper can be found scanned on this Facebook page.

Dictionaries, Audio Pronunciation and Recordings

The New Lakota Dictionary Online by The Lakota Language Consortium

The most up to date source for contemporary Lakota. Desktop versions are available on the Sitting Bull College campus and in the library.

Dakota Language Audio Pronunciation Companion for Beginning Dakota by Canku, Knudson and Snow 

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Colorized stereopticon image of cutting up beef at Standing Rock late 1800s (Sitting Bull College Archive)

An English-Dakota Vocabulary by a Member of the Dakota Mission 1852               

An English-Dakota Dictionary by John Williamson 1902

An English-Dakota School Dictionary by John Williamson 1886

Dakota ABC Wowapi Kin by Stephen Riggs 1866

Dakota Grammar, Texts and Ethnography by Stephen Riggs 1893

Dakota-English Dictionary by James Owen Dorsey/Stephen Riggs 1890

Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota Language by Stephen Riggs

KILI Radio Recordings of Local Lakota Language Show

Lacotah: Dictionary of the Sioux Language by Joseph Hyer and William Starring 1866

The Sioux Language by W.A. Burman 1883

Electronic Books

Research as Resistance: Critical, Indigenous and Anti-Oppressive Approaches

Research Databases            

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Artwork by student from the Kenel Farm School in Kenel South Dakota 1895 (Sitting Bull College Archive)

All resources below are available on campus through any Sitting Bull College network. For remote and off campus access contact Sitting Bull College Library for a user name and password if applicable.

Anthrosource
Full text access to the journals of the American Anthropolical Association (available at this link on Sitting Bull College campus)

Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education and Society

Peer-reviewed, online open access journal committed to supporting and advancing decolonization scholarship, practice, and activism within and, more importantly, beyond and against, the academy.

Ella Deloria Archive
A full text collection of the papers and documents of Ella Deloria

Native American Ethnobotany Database from the University of Michigan
A searchable database of “Foods, Drugs, Dyes and Fibers of Native American Peoples, Derived from Plants.”

UCLA Language Materials Project Database Lakota Language Special Collections

Special Collections

Index to James E. Emery Recordings
Index to a collection of over three hundred CD recordings of traditional Lakota stories, music and history recorded by James E. Emery in the 1950’s through the 1970’s. This collection is available at Sitting Bull College Library.

George Bushotter Papers

Sitting Bull College Library is a repository for digital copies of the 3,500 pages of Lakota texts produced by George Bushotter in conjunction with James O. Dorsey courtesey of the Smithsonian Anthropological Archives.  The texts relate hundreds of Lakota stories in the contemporary language of the  1880s. Texts can be accessed by visiting the library, but are also available from the Smithsonian online catalog here

Francis Densmore Recordings

In the early 20th century, Francis Densmore visited Standing Rock and made 260 recordings of music. This music is accessible by visiting Sitting Bull College Library courtesey of the Library of Congress. A full description and list from  can be found here, but also in Teton Sioux Music

Treaties

Resources for Information on treaties between the United States, various colonial powers and American Indian nations.

Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties with Various Indian Tribes 1801-1869
Includes a collection of ephemera surrounding treaties such as: instructions to treaty commissioners, reports, letters and in some cases treaties.

Early Recognized Treaties with the American Indian Nations
A companion to Kappler that provides access to treaties between American Indian nations and colonizers between 1722 and 1805.

Kappler’s Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties
The classic resource for accessing American Indian treaties online. Contains treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to American Indian tribes.

Treaty of Fort Laramie 1851

Sioux Treaty of 1868

United States Papers regarding Indian Affairs
Legislative and executive documents dealing with Indian Affairs from 1789-1838.

Treaty Between the United States and the Two Kettles Band of  Dakota or Sioux Indians 1866

Treaty Between the United States and the Yanktonai Band of Dakota or Sioux Indians 1865

 Film

Dakota 38

Award winning documentary that follows an annual ride memorializing the hanging of 38 Dakota men in Mankato Minnesota in 1862. Available here to watch online or for free download.

 Journal Articles

Lakota Struggles for Cultural Survival: History, Health and Reservation Life

 

Ethnobotany

Culturally Important Plants of the Lakota by Linda Black Elk and Wilbur Flying By Sr.

 

Useful Websites                                                      

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SRCC Bulletin Cover (Sitting Bull College Archive)

American Indian Film Gallery

Lakota Winter Counts Online Exhibit

Minnesota Place Names

Plains Indian Ledger Art

Primeau.org
A useful website dealing with Primeau family genealogy

Standing Rock History from the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe
The History of Standing Rock from the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe

Teaching Indigenous Languages
A collections of links and information on the teaching of indigenous languages